Down syndrome (Trisomy 21), caused by an extra chromosome 21.•
Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18), caused by an extra chromosome 18.•
Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13), caused by an extra chromosome 13.•
Klinefelter syndrome, caused by an extra X chromosome, the most common sex chromosome abnormality in males.•
Turner syndrome, caused by missing one X chromosome in females.•
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (blood cancer), a classic 9:22 translocation that is diagnostic of the disease.