Dissertation & Trainings

We take responsibility in imparting skill enhancement trainings for international standards as per national (NABL) and international (CAP) accreditation bodies to students and personnel’s as per recent diagnostics requirements and for research and development. The training program can also help for both masters & bachelor’s students for partial fulfillment of their bachelors and master’s degree in the area of life sciences, biotechnology students. The trainings are also imparted to medical graduates (MBBS) and post graduate’s doctors (MD) in the field of pathology/ biochemistry & microbiology for their skill enhancement for reporting patients in the field of cancer/leukemia diagnosis and clinical genetics for treatment and diagnosis of different genetic markers.
We have designed various training module includes that imparts both theoretical knowledge and hands on training in advanced genetic technologies various training modules in the field of including Chromosome analysis (Karyotype), Fluorescence in-situ hybrization (FISH) and Chromosome Microarray technologies, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) & Next generation sequencing (NGS) for doing Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) solutions for its clinical applications

Genetics Knowledge (Clinical Cytogenetics)


Principles of General biology and Genetics that relate to Cytogenetics

  1. Describe cell structure and function.
  2. Summarize the stages of the cell cycle, and of mitosis and meiosis (both spermatogenesis and oogenesis). Describe DNA structure (base sequence, complementarity, etc.), and function (genetic code, replication, transcription and translation, and mutations) chromosome ultrastructure: telomeres, centromeres, nucleosomes, histones, loop domains, scaffolding, DNA packing, etc.
  3. Review basic embryology and the origin of various tissues: blood, skin, CVS, and amniotic fluid.
  4. Describe basic principles of inheritance (dominant or recessive, autosomal or sex linked, multifactorial, polygenic, Lyon hypothesis, imprinting, trinucleotide repeat, polygenic etc.). Describe mutagenicity and principles of genetic toxicology.
  5. Understand genome structure – gene structure, low-copy and high-copy repeat sequences, chromosomal
  6. Structure, unstable regions, conserved regions.


Principles of Clinical Cytogenetics

  1. Describe etiology of chromosomal abnormalities such as anaphase lag, non-disjunction, dispermy, breakage and repair, uniparental disomy, and the influence of these processes of maternal age effect, clastogens, inherited breakage syndromes and imprinting.
  2. Understand basic principles of genetic counseling including pedigree analysis and risk calculations for inherited conditions.
  3. Discuss basic principles of cancer cytogenetics including hematopoiesis, clonal evolution, disease remission and relapse.
  4. Correlate molecular genetic results with cytogenetics for prenatal diagnosis, family studies, and cancer cytogenetics.
  5. Be familiar with clinical features of common constitutional and acquired cytogenetic disorders including aneuploidies, microdeletion syndromes, chromosome breakage syndromes, and hematologic neoplasms and solid tumors.
  6. Understand intragenic and large multi-genic copy number variants and mechanisms for their formation. Understand the mechanisms for and implications of large regions of homozygosity in the genome indicative of uniparental disomy, consanguinity, and identity by descent.


Principles of General biology and Genetics that relate to Molecular genetics

  1. Understand DNA structure (base sequence, pairing, replication and packaging into chromosomes). Explain transcription, splicing, translation, and variation of gene expression between tissues.
  2. Explain genomic organization and gene structure.
  3. Understand core technologies for allele discrimination and mutation detection


Principles of Molecular Genetics

  1. Explain mode of inheritance at level of organism (dominant, co-dominant, recessive, autosomal, sex-linked, multifactorial, polygenic, inheritance of imprinted genes).
  2. Explain action of gene at cellular level (dominant-negative, recessive). Describe different classes of mutations (e.g. missense, nonsense, deletion, insertion, splice-site, triplet repeat expansion).
  3. Explain gene expression at cellular level (dominant, dominant-negative, or negative).
  4. Discuss basic principles of genetic counseling including pedigree analysis.
  5. Perform Bayesian risk analysis.
  6. Describe risk factors for mutations (advanced maternal age and nondisjunction, advanced paternal age and new autosomal dominant mutations, mutagens and carcinogens).
  7. Correlate molecular genetic results with cytogenetic results for prenatal diagnosis, family studies, and cancer diagnostics or cancer risk assessment and any other pre-analytic clinical information



Culture techniques

  1. Aseptic Culture techniques
    1. Use Universal Precautions for protection against potential exposure to infectious agents (e.g., protective clothing, gloves and masks, containers for sample delivery and waste disposal, biological safety cabinets).
    2. Use and document methods to detect, identify, control, and eliminate microbial or chemical contamination.
    3. Practice measures that prevent cross-contamination between samples.
  2. Media Preparation Techniques
    1. Choose appropriate medium additives such as sera, antibiotics, buffers, mitogens, and growth factors depending on sample type and test ordered.
    2. Select appropriate methods of preparation and storage of media to maintain pH, sterility, and ability to support growth. Document processes to exclude expired reagents.
      1. Appropriate culture techniques for specimens
        1. Select culture equipment and vessels for closed or open culture systems.
        2. Select culture technique for specimen taking into account type of tissue, methods of initiation, type of culture, and purpose for study.
        3. Appraise the effect of cell density on rate of growth and adjust appropriately (e.g., cell count of leukemic specimens).
        4. Monitor and document the effectiveness of all solutions used in the procedures prior to use on diagnostic material.
        5. Record complete information for culture of specimen, including identification of technologist, lot numbers of media, sera, growth factors, and other reagents, incubator used, and mitogen, if used
      2. Monitor cell growth and control variables.
        1. Employ measures that will maintain optimal cell growth (e.g., feeding and centrifugation/concentration of specimens prior to culture to correct for depleted medium).
        2. Evaluate status of cultures using assessment of growth and mitotic activity, pH of medium, and turbidity.
        3. Identify and document probable causes of poor growth and culture failure, such as inadequate specimens, or equipment failure, and describe corrective actions taken.
        4. Report findings of culture failure or growth inadequate for analysis to laboratory personnel, and, under supervision as needed, request new sample, if appropriate.
      3. MODULE: LC2
      4. Principles and Techniques for Harvesting cell cultures

        1. Determine optimal time sequence and method for harvest (manual or robotic)

        Apply knowledge of cell cycle for various cell types and culture conditions (e.g., PHA stimulated lymphocytes, unstimulated leukemic cells, synchronized cultures) to time harvests

      5. Harvesting procedures for specimen or culture
        1. Understand the use synchronizing or intercalating agents, such as amethopterin, fluorodeoxyuridine, bromine deoxyuridine, ethidium bromide, or echinomycin D, at appropriate concentration, temperature, and duration.
        2. Use spindle fiber inhibitor (e.g., Colcemid, Velban) at correct concentration, temperature, and duration.
        3. Use recommended procedure for removing cells from culture vessels. Use appropriate hypotonic solution (KCl or sodium citrate), at correct concentration, temperature, and duration.
        4. Use cell fixative (acetic acid/methanol) at correct concentration, temperature, and duration.
        5. Control mechanical damage to chromosomes by proper mixing, shaking, pipetting, centrifuging, or other handling of the cells.
        6. Record complete information for harvest of specimen including date, addition of spindle fiber inhibitor, intercalating or synchronizing agents, conditions used for harvest, and name of technologist processing the samples.
      6. Slide Preparation Technique for analyzable metaphases
        1. Select method of slide preparation that will produce high quality metaphases with optimum spreading (e.g., control variables such as wet or dry slides, air flow, humidity level and temperature to regulate slide drying rate).
        2. Employ techniques that control concentration and distribution of cellular and other debris on slides.
        3. Evaluate quality of slides with phase contrast microscope and adjust variables as necessary. Describe, document processes for determining acceptability for analysis.
        4. Employ techniques that control the aging of slides to produce optimal banding conditions (e.g., storing at various temperatures, such as 37°C, 60°C, 90°C, for various times, such as 20 min to 2 hours, or overnight; UV exposure or microwave).
        5. Use slide storage methods that best maintain chromosome quality for banding and staining procedures, with protection from humidity, light, chemicals, or mechanical damage
      7. MODULE: LC3
        1. Principles and techniques of Chromosome Banding & Staining
      8. MODULE: LC4
        1. Maintenance and use of microscopes and Software’s/ computer-generated imaging techniques and equipment
      9. MODULE: LC5
        1. Chromosome analysis (KARYOTYPING),
      10. MODULE: LC6
        1. FISH Analysis (REPORTING)


    After successful completion of each module a presentation will be given by trainee followed by quiz for successful completion of the modules. All the Successful candidate will be given a Certificate for completion of training/dissertation work.


Training Duration Modules Mode of Training Course fee (INR) Objective
One Week Within 24-48 hours from time of collection Online/Personal with Lab Visit 4500 Knowledge of working and indication for Cytogenetics report Lab
Four Weeks G1, G2, G3 (Cytogenetics knowledge)LC1, LC2 (Observe & Lab Training) Presentations & Lab Visit (observation) 15000 Complete exposure of Cytogenetics Lab functioning
Three months G1, G2, G3 (Cytogenetics knowledge)LC1, LC2, L3 (Hands on Wet lab training) Hands on Wet Lab Training 25000 Hands On Training on Modules
Six months G1, G2, G3, G4 (Cytogenetics & Mol. Genetics knowledge); LC1, LC2, LC4, LC5 (Hands on Wet Lab training with Reporting Skills) Exhaustive Training in Wet Lab with direct supervision 50000 Bone Marrow/Blood Aspirate
Twelve months Within 24-48 hours from time of collection Wet Lab & Reporting Skills with One to One mentoring by Expert 75000 Acquire Karyotyping & FISH Reporting Skills (Prenatal, Postnatal, Heamatological)

As a company we believe in philosophy of adoption of advanced genetics technologies with clinical annotation (medical knowledge) that can improve clinical outcomes for patients. This approach has already been proved beneficial for patient’s undergoing diagnosis.

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